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Volume 15 (2019) Volume 14 (2018) Volume 13 (2017) Volume 12 (2016) Volume 11 (2015) Volume 10 (2014) Volume 9 (2013) Volume 8 (2012) Volume 7 (2011) Volume 6 (2010) Volume 5 (2009) Volume 4 (2008) Volume 3 (2007) Volume 2 (2006) Volume 1 (2005)

Volume 15 Issue 4 (2019)

Brain Activation During Conceptual Processing of Action and Sound Verbs original article

pp. 236-255 | First published on 20 October 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0272-4

Margot Popp, Natalie M. Trumpp, Eun-Jin Sim, Markus Kiefer

Abstract

Grounded cognition approaches to conceptual representations postulate a close link between conceptual knowledge and the sensorimotor brain systems. The present fMRI study tested, whether a feature-specific representation of concepts, as previously demonstrated for nouns, can also be found for action- and sound-related verbs. Participants were presented with action- and soundrelated verbs along with pseudoverbs while performing a lexical decision task. Sound-related verbs activated auditory areas in the temporal cortex, whereas action-related verbs activated brain regions in the superior frontal gyrus and the cerebellum, albeit only at a more liberal threshold. This differential brain activation during conceptual verb processing partially overlapped with or was adjacent to brain regions activated during the functional localizers probing sound perception or action execution. Activity in brain areas involved in the processing of action information was parametrically modulated by ratings of action relevance. Comparisons of action- and sound-related verbs with pseudoverbs revealed activation for both verb categories in auditory and motor areas. In contrast to proposals of strong grounded cognition approaches, our study did not demonstrate a considerable overlap of activations for action- and sound-related verbs and for the corresponding functional localizer tasks. However, in line with weaker variants of grounded cognition theories, the differential activation pattern for action- and sound-related verbs was near corresponding sensorimotor brain regions depending on conceptual feature relevance. Possibly, action-sound coupling resulted in a mutual activation of the motor and the auditory system for both action- and sound-related verbs, thereby reducing the effect sizes for the differential contrasts.

Keywords: embodied cognition, grounded cognition theory, action-related concepts, sound-related concepts, language, functional magnetic resonance imaging

Development and Validation of a Shortened Language-Specific Version of the UNRAVEL Placekeeping Ability Performance Measuring Tool original article

pp. 256-264 | First published on 20 October 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0273-3

Agata Kopacz, Cezary Biele, Aldona Zdrodowska

Abstract

The current study aimed to develop a shortened language-specific (Polish) version of the UNRAVEL task (Altmann, Trafton, & Hambrick, 2014) and to verify whether the adaptation yields valid and reliable data about placekeeping ability. Since the original procedure is intended to investigate task performance referring to placekeeping operations under conditions of task interruptions, we used this tool in the context of a multitasking situation. The adopted version differs from the original in that we reduced the number of steps in the procedure and changed the rules set, using an acronym WINDA (a word meaning elevator in Polish). Participants were asked to try to keep their place in the WINDA sequence, make a two-alternative forced choice regarding one feature of a presented stimulus, and to continue the task after the interruption at the place where they had left off. Similarly to the original task, reliability of sequence errors was high, suggesting that the WINDA task is suitable for measuring individual differences in placekeeping performance. The results suggest that the adaptation process that we employed to create the WINDA task can be utilized to generate other language adaptations of this tool (characterized by different levels of difficulty) targeted at specific subject groups.

Keywords: placekeeping ability, interruptions, multitasking, WINDA procedure, language-specific adaptation of the UNRAVEL task

How Attentional Guidance and Response Selection Boost Contextual Learning: Evidence from Eye Movement original article

pp. 265-275 | First published on 14 November 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0274-2

Chao Wang, Hanna Haponenko, Xingze Liu, Hongjin Sun, Guang Zhao

Abstract

The contextual cueing effect (CCE) refers to the learned association between predictive configuration and target location, speeding up response times for targets. Previous studies have examined the underlying processes (initial perceptual process, attentional guidance, and response selection) of CCE but have not reached a general consensus on their contributions to CCE. In the present study, we used eye tracking to address this question by analyzing the oculomotor correlates of context-guided learning in visual search and eliminating indefinite response factors during response priming. The results show that both attentional guidance and response selection contribute to contextual learning.

Keywords: contextual cueing effect eye movement attentional guidance response selection

Disrupters as Well as Monitors: Roles of Others During and After Collaborative Remembering in the DRM Procedure original article

pp. 276-289 | First published on 14 November 2019 | DOI: 10.5709/acp-0275-1

Aiqing Nie, Chunchun Ke, Mengsi Li, Bingyan Guo

Abstract

Influence of others on true and inauthentic memory both during and after collaborative remembering have drawn extensive attention in recent years. Collaborative research has recorded three typical effects: collaborative inhibition and error pruning (i.e., nominal groups recall more true information but also bear higher erroneous intrusions than collaborative groups) during collaboration, as well as post-collaborative recall benefit after collaboration. This study introduced Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists not only to investigate these phenomena in semantically related information, but also set a course to explore false memory in the collaborative context. Another issue is the sensitivity of these effects to different episodic memory tests (i.e., item memory and source memory tests). In views of these, the current study instructed participants to study several DRM lists and then recall previously studied words (item recall) together with their displayed colors (source retrieval) twice (Recall 1 and 2). Recall 1 was performed either individually or collaboratively, whereas Recall 2 was conducted individually. The cost of collaborative inhibition was obtained, along with three different beneficial effects: error pruning, false memory reduction, and post-collaborative recall benefit. Furthermore, the novel implication of the current study is that it reveals the sensitivity of collaborative inhibition and error pruning in DRM lists to testing conditions and demonstrates that the modulation of collaboration on false memory occurs in the same way both during and after collaboration. These results are discussed in terms of the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis and other accounts.

Keywords: collaborative inhibition, error pruning, source retrieval, post-collaborative recall, DRM

Investigating the Relations Among Different Measures of False Memory original article

pp. 290-300 | First published on 14 November 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0276-0

Francesca Falzarano, Karen L. Siedlecki

Abstract

Researchers have used the term false memory to describe various memory errors, including the incorporation of erroneous information into a memory, misremembering a word presented as a picture, and the construction of a detailed memory of an event that did not occur. Whether such diverse manifestations of false memory are assessing the same construct has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among a set of variables that have been used in the literature to measure false memory. The sample consisted of 112 college students who completed four false memory measures, including the commonly used Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) and the misinformation tasks. Zero-order correlations indicated that there are little to no associations between false memories in the DRM and the misinformation tasks, as well as the other false memory tasks. A confirmatory factor analysis of the DRM and misinformation variables further suggested that the false memory variables share little variance in common and may not be represented by a unitary factor. Thus, the results of the current study suggest that tasks intended to measure false memory may be measuring different types of memory errors.

Keywords: false memory, DRM, misinformation, convergent validity

Singles and Faces: High Recognition for Female Faces in Single Males original article

pp. 301-307 | First published on 14 November 2019 | DOI:

Mohamad El Haj, Ahmed A. Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino

Abstract

A substantial body of research has assessed the effect of gender on face recognition; however, little is known about the effect of relationship status on face recognition. In this study, we assessed for the first time how relationship status impacts face recognition by asking 62 male and female participants to decide whether they had previously encountered faces of males and females. Participants were also asked to fill a socio-demographic variables questionnaire which included, among other information, question about their relationship status (i.e., single vs. in a relationship). A significant effect of relationship status on face recognition was observed only in males; namely, single males demonstrated higher face recognition than males in relationships, whereas similar face recognition was observed in single and in-relationship females. More specifically, single males demonstrated higher recognition for female than for male faces, whereas no differences were observed in single females, males in relationships, or in females in relationship. Single males seem to be motivated by mating opportunity and, thus, unlike single females or males and females in relationships, devote high attentional resources to processing faces of the opposite gender

Keywords: face recognition, gender differences, evolutionary theory, relationship status

Becoming Aware of One's Own Biases in Emerging Adulthood— A Longitudinal Study. Metacognitive Approach original article

pp. 308-317 | First published on 14 November 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0278-y

Paweł Kleka, Hanna Brycz, Agnieszka Fanslau, Aleksandra Pilarska

Abstract

The current longitudinal developmental study was designed to determine whether awareness of one’s own biases (the metacognitive self, MCS) emerges and develops during the developmental period known as emerging adulthood. To this end, we followed almost 400 undergraduate university students (18–23 years) over the first three years of their studies, capturing data at five time points. We observed a growth in MCS that we explain in terms of the cognitive and motivational processes characteristic of emerging adulthood. We also observed group differences in MCS development. Students who performed better on the MCS scale at the very beginning of the study tended to show a greater increase in the MCS than those who scored poorly. Emerging adulthood appears to be a very important period with respect to individual differences in becoming aware of one’s own biases.

Keywords: metacognition, self, growth, emerging adulthood, longitudinal studies