Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019).

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów.

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Volume 16 (2020) Volume 15 (2019) Volume 14 (2018) Volume 13 (2017) Volume 12 (2016) Volume 11 (2015) Volume 10 (2014) Volume 9 (2013) Volume 8 (2012) Volume 7 (2011) Volume 6 (2010) Volume 5 (2009) Volume 4 (2008) Volume 3 (2007) Volume 2 (2006) Volume 1 (2005)

Volume 16 Issue 4 (2020)

Predicting Individuals’ Experienced Fear From Multimodal Physiological Responses to a Fear-Inducing Stimulus original article

pp. 291-301 | First published on 24 November 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0303-x

Eun-Hye Jang, Sangwon Byun, Mi-Sook Park, Jin-Hun Sohn

Abstract

Emotions are experienced differently by individuals, and thus, it is important to account for individuals’ experienced emotions to understand their physiological responses to emotional stimuli. The present study investigated the physiological responses to a fear-inducing stimulus and examined whether these responses can predict experienced fear. A total of 230 participants were presented with neutral and fear-inducing film clips, after which they self-rated their experienced emotions. Physiological measures (skin conductance level and response: SCL, SCR, heart rate: HR, pulse transit time: PTT, fingertip temperature: FT, and respiratory rate: RR) were recorded during the stimuli presentation. We examined the correlations between the physiological measures and the participants’ experienced emotional intensity, and performed a multiple linear regression to predict fear intensity based on the physiological responses. Of the participants, 92.5% experienced the fear emotion, and the average intensity was 5.95 on a 7-point Likert scale. Compared to the neutral condition, the SCL, SCR, HR, and RR increased significantly during the fear-inducing stimulus presentation whereas FT and PTT decreased significantly. Fear intensity correlated positively with SCR and HR and negatively with SCL, FT, PTT, and RR. The multiple linear regression demonstrated that fear intensity was predicted by a combination of SCL, SCR, HR, FT, and RR. Our findings indicate that the physiological responses to experiencing fear are associated with cholinergic, sympathetic, and α-adrenergic vascular activation as well as myocardial β-sympathetic excitation, and support the use of multimodal physiological signals for quantifying emotions.

Keywords: fear intensity, experienced emotion, physiological signals, autonomic responses

The TeensyTap Framework for Sensorimotor Synchronization Experiments original article

pp. 302-308 | First published on 24 November 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0304-y

Floris Tijmen van Vugt

Abstract

Synchronizing movements with an external periodic stimulus, such as tapping your foot along with a metronome, is a remarkable human skill called sensorimotor synchronization. A growing body of literature investigates this process, but experiments require collecting responses with high temporal reliability, which often requires specialized hardware. The current article presents and validates TeensyTap, an inexpensive, highly functional framework with excellent timing performance. The framework uses widely available, low-cost hardware and consists of custom-written open-source software and communication protocols. TeensyTap allows running complete experiments through a graphical user interface and can simultaneously present a pacing signal (metronome), measure movements using a force-sensitive resistor, and deliver auditory feedback, with optional experimenter specified artificial feedback delays. Movement data is communicated to a computer and saved for offline analysis in a format that allows it to be easily imported into spreadsheet programs. The present work also reports a validation experiment showing that timing performance of TeensyTap is highly accurate, ranking it among the gold standard tools available in the field. Metronome pacing signals are presented with millisecond accuracy, feedback sounds are delivered on average 2 ms following the subjects’ taps, and the timing log files produced by the device are unbiased and accurate to within a few milliseconds. The framework allows for a range of experimental questions to be addressed and, since it is open source and transparent, researchers with some technical expertise can easily adapt and extend it to accommodate a host of possible future experiments that have yet to be imagined.

Keywords: sensorimotor synchronization, microcontroller, auditory feedback, metronome, music