Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019).

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów.


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Volume 16 (2020) Volume 15 (2019) Volume 14 (2018) Volume 13 (2017) Volume 12 (2016) Volume 11 (2015) Volume 10 (2014) Volume 9 (2013) Volume 8 (2012) Volume 7 (2011) Volume 6 (2010) Volume 5 (2009) Volume 4 (2008) Volume 3 (2007) Volume 2 (2006) Volume 1 (2005)

Volume 16 Issue 3 (2020)

An Investigation on How Inhibition in Cognitive Processing Contributes to Fluid Reasoning original article

pp. 176-185 | First published on 24 August 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0295-7

Tengfei Wang, Chenyu Li, Wei Wei, Karl Schweizer


This article reports an investigation of how inhibition contributes to fluid reasoning when it is decomposed into the reasoning ability, item-position, and speed components to control for possible method effects. Working memory was also taken into consideration. A sample of 223 university students completed a fluid reasoning scale, two tasks tapping prepotent response inhibition, and two working memory tasks. Fixed-links modeling was used to separate the effect of reasoning ability from the effects of item-position and speed. The goodness-of-fit results confirmed the necessity to consider the reasoning ability, item-position, and speed components simultaneously. Prepotent response inhibition was only associated with reasoning ability. This association disappeared when working memory served as a mediator. Taken together, these results reflect the inhomogeneity of what is tapped by the fluid reasoning scale on one hand and, on the other, suggest inhibition as an important component of working memory.

Keywords: fluid reasoning, prepotent response inhibition, working memory, fixed-links modeling

Competition Shadow: Anchoring to Fear Versus Hope in Estimating Rivals in Competition original article

pp. 186-201 | First published on 3 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0296-6

Ehsan Chitsaz, Seyed Mahdi Etemadifard, Somayeh Khoshsoroor, Liang Dapeng


We studied the effect of two inconsistent emotions, fear and hope, in strategic decision‐making during a competition. We sought to examine which emotion will be more related to whether decision-makers accurately and objectively estimate their rival We developed a nuanced perspective on the effects of trait anxiety on rival estimation by integrating it with the competition shadow. Using a competition simulation and basing on data from 221 individuals across two countries, we found support for a predicted effect of trait anxiety on rival estimation. Several theoretical implications are discussed.

Keywords: fear, hope, rival estimation, trait anxiety, rivalry, decision making

Vigilance, Inhibitory Control and Regional Cerebral Blood Oxygenation in the PFC - Differences in ADHD Types of Presentations original article

pp. 202-212 | First published on 3 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0297-5

Sebastian Skalski, Paweł Dobrakowski


It is commonly believed that proven abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the prefrontal lobes affect cognitive deficits in children with ADHD. The purpose of the current study was to assess vigilance, inhibitory control, and regional cerebral blood oxygenation (rCBO2) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of children with ADHD. The study included 150 children with ADHD and 51 typically developing (TD) children aged 9-12 years. Children with ADHD showed a deficit in vigilance (assessed by the shortened version of the Mackworth clock task), inhibitory control (the Stroop task), different rCBO2 patterns in the PFC, as well as lower cortical activation during cognitive tasks. These differences are discussed in the context of the types of ADHD presentations.

Keywords: vigilance, inhibitory control, cerebral blood oxygenation. prefrontal cortex, ADHD

The Effect of Painting Beauty on Eye Movements original article

pp. 213-227 | First published on 9 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0298-4

Tomasz Jankowski, Piotr Francuz, Piotr Oleś, Elżbieta Chmielnicka-Kuter, Paweł Augustynowicz


The current study aimed to determine relationships between oculomotor behavior and aesthetical evaluation of paintings. We hypothesized that paintings evaluated as beautiful compared to nonbeautiful would be associated with different oculomotor behavior in terms of fixation duration, viewing time, and temporal and spatial distribution of attention. To verify these hypotheses, we examined forty participants that looked at and evaluated 140 figurative paintings while their eye movements were recorded. To analyze data, we used divergence point analysis (DPA) and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results of the DPA suggested that fixation durations longer than 229 ms are sensitive to the effect of aesthetical evaluation. We also found that the effect of aesthetical evaluation was significant in the time window between 2.3 s and 19.8 s of viewing a painting. The results of the RQA suggested that the participants viewed paintings evaluated as beautiful in a more structured manner compared to those evaluated as non-beautiful, which suggests higher involvement of top-down processes while facing beautiful artwork. We discuss and refer these results to the literature on cognitive processes related to aesthetical evaluation of paintings.

Keywords: eye-tracking, aesthetical evaluation, survival analysis, recurrence quantification analysis

Higher Self-Control, Less Deception: The Effect of Self-Control on Deception Behaviors original article

pp. 228-241 | First published on 14 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0299-3

Wei Fan, Mengmeng Ren, Wenjie Zhang, Pengxiang Xiao, Yiping Zhong


The self-control ability and self-control resources have a different influence on deception, but the cognition mechanism of this different influence has not been described yet. In this study, the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique was utilized to conduct two experiments exploring the effects of self-control ability and self-control resources on deception from two approaches. In Experiment 1, participants with different levels of self-control ability performed a visual perception task to measure deception and deception tendencies. The results revealed that individuals with low self-control ability exhibited more deceptive behaviors than did individuals with high self-control ability. Furthermore, individuals with high self-control ability evoked larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes than did individuals with low self-control ability. Experiment 2 involved selecting individuals with medium self-control ability. The Stroop task and a visual perception task were employed to investigate the influence of self-control resources on deception. The results showed that the depletion of self-control resources facilitated smaller N2 and larger P3 amplitudes than did non-depletion of self-control resources. In conclusion, these results suggest that individuals with high self-control ability are less likely to deceive others in order to obtain more benefits. When individuals have sufficient self-control resources, they resist temptation and reduce deception behaviors. Deception and deception tendencies may be more likely in people with low of self-control and whose selfcontrol resources are depleted. In people with moderate self-control, deception was still regulated by self-depletion.

Keywords: deception, self-control ability, self-control resources, visual perception task, event-related potential

Better Destination Memory in Females original article

pp. 242-247 | First published on 14 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0300-2

Mohamad El Haj, Philippe Allain, Joanna Lucenet, André Ndobo


Destination memory refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information. The current study investigated gender differences in destination memory. Female and male participants were asked to tell proverbs to pictures depicting faces of female and male celebrities. Participants were later asked to decide to whom each proverb had been previously told. Results showed better destination memory (regardless of the destination’s gender) in female participants than in male participants, a performance that was significantly correlated with verbal episodic memory. However, no own-gender bias was observed, as both female and male participants demonstrated similar memory for female and male destinations. Taken together, our findings suggest a relationship between females’ superiority in destination memory and their better verbal episodic memory. The absence of an own-gender bias in destination memory is interpreted an evolutionary need to maintain social contacts with all genders.

Keywords: destination memory, episodic memory, gender, own-gender bias

The Relationship Between Problematic Video Gaming, Problematic Facebook Use, and Self-Control Dimensions Among Female and Male Gamers original article

pp. 248-267 | First published on 23 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0301-1

Andrzej Cudo, Tomasz Misiuro, Mark D. Griffiths, Małgorzata Torój


The development of new technology has contributed to changes in everyday functioning. However, one possible negative aspect of new technologies is their problematic, uncontrolled use. Dysfunctional self-control is a critical aspect of problematic behavior. Consequently, the present research investigated the relationship between problematic video gaming (PVG), problematic Facebook use (PFU), and self-control dimensions among female and male gamers. The study comprised 830 videogame players (350 female gamers) aged from 15 to 31 years. PFU was assessed using the Facebook Intrusion Scale, and PVG was assessed using the Problem Video Game Playing Questionnaire. Self-control dimensions were assessed using the 50-item Nowy Arkusz Samowiedzy (Self- Knowledge New Sheet; NAS-50). Findings showed that lower goal maintenance was associated with higher PFU, whereas lower initiative and persistence was associated with higher PVG among both groups. Additionally, there was a negative association between inhibition and adjournment and problematic behaviors among male gamers. In contrast, PFU was associated inhibition and adjournment among female gamers. The findings demonstrate the difference between both genders in the relationship between PVG and self-control. These findings enable a better understanding of the relationship between problematic behaviors and self-control among gamers and the differences between female and male gamers.

Keywords: problematic Facebook use, problematic video gaming, self-control, female gamers, male gamers

How Does Performing Demanding Activities Influence Prospective Memory? A Systematic Review original article

pp. 268-290 | First published on 23 September 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0302-0

Patricia Matos, Diana R. Pereira, Pedro B. Albuquerque, Flávia H. Santos


This paper is the first systematic review on the role of ongoing task load in prospective remembering, which was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Forty articles published between 1995 and 2020 were included. They evaluated prospective memory (PM) performance (i.e., the ability to remember to execute a delayed intention) in adult samples aged between 19 and 50 years old when the PM cue appeared under cognitively demanding conditions. The results revealed that people are more likely to fail to remember to perform a delayed intention at the appropriate circumstances or time in the future when their cognitive resources are taxed by demanding ongoing activities. We conclude the review by highlighting that the degree of working memory and executive resources seems to account for some of the discrepant findings and by proposing directions for future research.

Keywords: prospective memory, ongoing task load, omission errors, commission errors