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Volume 16 (2020) Volume 15 (2019) Volume 14 (2018) Volume 13 (2017) Volume 12 (2016) Volume 11 (2015) Volume 10 (2014) Volume 9 (2013) Volume 8 (2012) Volume 7 (2011) Volume 6 (2010) Volume 5 (2009) Volume 4 (2008) Volume 3 (2007) Volume 2 (2006) Volume 1 (2005)

Volume 16 Issue 1 (2020)

A Facilitatory Effect of Perceptual Incongruity on Target-Source Matching in Pictorial Metaphors of Chinese Advertising: EEG Evidence original article

pp. 1-12 | First published on 29 January 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0279-z

Shuo Cao, Yanzhang Wang, Huili Wang, Hongjun Chen, Guanghui Zhang, Ada Kritikos

Abstract

Using evoked response potentials, we investigated the implicit detection of incongruity during target-source matching in pictorial metaphors of Chinese advertising. Participants saw an image of a product (the target in a visual metaphorical relationship), and then made a same-different judgment in response to a second image (the source in a visual metaphorical relationship) which was (in)congruous to the first image in terms of shape and/or function. We collected behavioral (button- press reaction time and accuracy), and neural (N270, delta and theta band activity) measures. The time-frequency analysis showed faster processing of incongruous visual information. Moreover, shape and conceptual incongruity were associated with increased N270 amplitude as well as delta (1-3 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) band power. Noticeably, compared with conceptual incongruity, shape incongruity evoked a larger N270 amplitude and stronger delta and theta band oscillation. In addition, the average topographical analysis revealed a frontal and central distribution of the power activity. The analysis of attitudes towards the advertising metaphor pictures also proved the supportive role played by incongruity. In conclusion, incongruity facilitates target-source matching in pictorial metaphors of Chinese advertising. The findings obtained from the study are important to metaphor designs of advertising pictures.

Keywords: perceptual incongruity, target-source matching, advertising pictorial metaphor

Bullying at Work and Mental Health: The Moderating Role of Demographic and Occupational Variables original article

pp. 13-23 | First published on 1 February 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0280-9

Anna Skuzińska, Mieczysław Plopa, Wojciech Plopa

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of individual (gender, age, education), and occupational (employment duration, workplace position, the duration of negative behaviour, and the number of perpetrators) characteristics of victims and perpetrators of negative workplace behaviours in the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. On the basis of the study on a sample of 904 employees, it was possible to determine the moderating factors. Protective factors contributing to the maintenance of mental health despite experiencing negative workplace behaviours were (a) male sex, (b) a relatively young age, (c) shorter length of job seniority, and (d) postsecondary education or lower. However, it was adverse for the mental health if negative behaviours were exhibited by a superior and when an employee was convinced that there were several perpetrators.

Keywords: bullying at work, mental health

Handle-Hand Compatibility Effects for the Right and Left Hand Using Reach-to-Touch Movements original article

pp. 24-33 | First published on 1 February 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0281-8

Gioacchino Garofalo, Davide R. Mussi, Lucia Riggio

Abstract

In stimulus-response compatibility tasks, performance is better when the handle of an object is oriented on the same side of the response than when the handle is oriented on the opposite side. Two major alternative accounts, the motor affordance and spatial accounts, have been proposed to explain this handle-hand compatibility effect. In two experiments, we tested between these two accounts by administering a go/no-go task to right-handed participants. Handled objects presented on a touchscreen were used as stimuli. Half of the participants had to reach-to-touch the stimuli by using their dominant hand, the other half by using their nondominant hand. Liftoff times (LTs), movement times (MTs) and spatial coordinates of the movement endpoints were recorded. Results from the LTs and MTs analyses showed no evidence of handle-hand compatibility effects. In contrast, the analyses of the spatial coordinates revealed that participants' touches were shifted more laterally towards the handle when the handles were oriented on the same side of the responding hand (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, the right-hand touches landed higher (towards the handle) than the left-hand touches, especially when the vertical object dimension was particularly salient (Experiment 1). Overall, these results are in line with the activation of hand motor programs to reach and grasp the object as predicted by the motor account, at least for the right/dominant hand.

Keywords: handle-hand compatibility, affordance, spatial coding, go/no-go task

Exploring Cognitive and Perceptual Judgment Processes in Gymnastics Using Essential Kinematics Information original article

pp. 34-44 | First published on 18 February 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0282-7

Melanie Mack

Abstract

The aim of the current study was to transfer the method of using isolated kinematics information combined with the examination of perceptual-cognitive processes to gymnastics judging and thereby investigating the informational underpinnings of skilled perception and judgment. More specifically, a combination of process-tracing methods that include both the gaze pattern (via eye tracking) and the performance judgment (via ratings on a six-point Likert scale) of participants with different gymnastics expertise (visual experts, n = 14, motor experts, n = 17, novices, n = 18) was employed for gymnastics performances of a floor routine (round off, back handspring, back layout somersault), which were shown as videos in original or in stick-figure format. Gaze pattern was analyzed for the whole floor routine as well as for the particular temporal-spatial windows of the three motor skills. Differences between visual experts, motor experts, and novices could be found concerning the judgment score, ηp 2 = .242, and the judgment accuracy, ηp 2 = .196, but not the gaze pattern. The significant interaction effects between skill and format for the gaze pattern show the importance of the last skill in the judgment processes. Further research should investigate the influence of judgment instruction on the gaze pattern as well as the importance of the last skill for the judgment score

Keywords: eye tracking, judgment, gymnastics, expertise, perception