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Volume 15 (2019) Volume 14 (2018) Volume 13 (2017) Volume 12 (2016) Volume 11 (2015) Volume 10 (2014) Volume 9 (2013) Volume 8 (2012) Volume 7 (2011) Volume 6 (2010) Volume 5 (2009) Volume 4 (2008) Volume 3 (2007) Volume 2 (2006) Volume 1 (2005)

Volume 15 Issue 2 (2019)

Visual Search for Letters in the Right Versus Lef Visual Hemifelds original article

pp. 1-14 | First published on 30 June 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0258-5

Elena S. Gorbunova, Maria V. Falikman

Abstract

The current study investigated the relationships between attention, word processing, and visual feld asymmetries. There is a discussion on whether each brain hemisphere possesses its own attentional resources and on how attention allocation depends on hemispheric lateralization of functions. We used stimuli with lateralized processing in an attentional task presented across the two visual hemifelds. Three experiments investigated the visual search for a prespecified letter in displays containing words or nonwords, placed left and right to fixation, with a variable target letter position within the strings. In Experiment 1, two letter strings of the same type (words or nonwords) were presented to both visual hemifelds. In Experiment 2, there was only one letter string presented right or left to fxation. In Experiment 3, two letter strings of different type were presented to both hemifelds. Response times and accuracy data were collected. The results of Experiment 1 provide evidence for letter-by-letter search within a word in the left visual feld (LVF), within a nonword in the right visual field (RVF), and for position-independent access to letters within a nonword in LVF and within a word in RVF. Experiment 3 produced similar results except for letter-by-letter search within words in RVF. In Experiment 2, for all types of letter strings in both hemifelds, we observed the same letter-by-letter search. These results demonstrate that presence of stimuli in both one or two hemifelds and the readiness to process a certain string type might contribute to the search for a letter within a letter string.

Keywords: visual search, visual attention, left/right visual feld, assymetry, word superiority effect

The Relationship Between Mindfulness, Cognitive Intrusions, and Recollection: An ERP study original article

pp. 15-25 | First published on 30 June 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0259-4

Tomasz Jankowski, Paweł Stróżak

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether mindfulness and cognitive intrusions predict recollection. Using electroencephalogram methodology, we investigated 31 participants who performed a recognition task and reported situational mindfulness as well as task-irrelevant (TII) and task-relevant intrusions (TRI). We used behavioral measures (response accuracy) to analyze performance effectiveness and event-related potentials (ERP) to measure processing efciency (compensatory processes) associated with performance of the task. Results suggest that being mindful during a task slightly improves recognition of old and new but not similar probes. Although worrying about the outcomes (i.e., TRI) facilitates improvement in true recognition of old probes, it also impairs correct rejection of new probes. Moreover, TRI predicted the strength of ERP effects associated with compensatory processes involved in recollection. We conclude that mindfulness slightly improves recognition without involvement of the compensatory effort and worrying partly increases responding accuracy at the cost of diminished processing efficiency.

Keywords: mindfulness, recollection, ERP, memory, mind-wandering

Metacognitive Illusion in Category Learning: Contributions of Processing Fluency and Beliefs original article

pp. 26-36 | First published on 30 June 2019 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0260-3

Jiawei Wang, Qiang Xing

Abstract

Interleaving with other categories of stimuli has been shown to enhance category learning. However, learners, tend to believe that blocking enhances learning, even after their own performance had showed the opposite. The present study explored the contributions of processing fluency (Experiment 1) and beliefs (Experiment 2) to the illusion that blocking enhances category learning. We found that: (a) learners’ performance benefted from interleaving, but their metacognitive judgments were not in conformity with it, (b) the perceived tendency of metacognitive illusion was reduced by inserting an unrelated cartoon image in the blocked presentation condition to decrease fluency, and (c) learners came to the experimental task with a pre-existing belief that the instruction of blocking by topic was superior to intermixing topics. This belief disappeared when learners were offered the theoretical explanation of why interleaving exemplars is more effective. In conclusion, this study revealed that processing fluency and held beliefs were two factors that cause this metacognitive illusion.

Keywords: category learning, fluency, belief, metacognitive illusion