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Volume 17 Issue 3 (2021)

Auditory Attentional Load Modulates Audiovisual Integration During Auditory/Visual Discrimination

pp. 193-202
First published on 25 July 2021 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0328-0
Yanna Ren, Nengwu Zhao, Junyuan Li, Junhao Bi, Tao Wang, Weiping Yang
Corresponding author:
Weiping Yang, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062, China.
Ren, Y., Zhao, N., Li, J., Bi, J., Wang, T., & Yang, W. (2021). Auditory attentional load modulates audiovisual integration during auditory/visual discrimination. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 17(3), 193-202.

Attention modulates numerous stages of audiovisual integration, and studies have shown that audiovisual integration is higher in attended conditions than in unattended conditions. However, attentional resources are limited for each person, and it is not yet clear how audiovisual integration changes under different attentional loads. Here, we explored how auditory attentional load affects audiovisual integration by applying an auditory/visual discrimination task to evaluate audiovisual integration and a rapid serial auditory presentation (RSAP) task to manipulate auditory attentional resources. The results for peak benefit and positive area under the curve of different probability showed that audiovisual integration was highest in the low attentional load condition and lowest in the high attentional load condition (low > no = medium > high). The peak latency and time window revealed that audiovisual integration was delayed as the attentional load increased (no < low < medium < high). Additionally, audiovisual depression was found in the no, medium, and high attentional load conditions but not in the low attentional load condition. These results suggest that mild auditory attentional load increases audiovisual integration, and high auditory attentional load decreases audiovisual integration.

Keywords: audiovisual integration, attentional load, auditory attention, discrimination task, race model

Task Interference in Prospective Memory: Adopting a Retrieval Mode and Checking for Targets

pp. 203-211
First published on 23 August 2021 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0329-x
Melissa J. Guynn
Corresponding author:
Melissa J. Guynn, Department of Psychology, MSC 3452, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001
Guynn, M. J. (2021). Task interference in prospective memory: Adopting a retrieval mode and checking for targets. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 17(3), 203-211.

Embedding a prospective memory task in an ongoing activity can interfere with performance of that ongoing activity. One explanation of this task interference is that it entails (a) adopting a retrieval mode or readiness to encounter the targets that indicate when to perform the intended action and (b) checking the environment for those targets. An experiment using a new method is reported and provides evidence for these processes. On control trials, participants performed just the ongoing activity (a short-term memory task combined with a 4-choice RT task). On experimental trials, a prospective memory task (press the Enter key if certain words appear in the short-term memory task) was embedded in the ongoing activity. Evidence for adopting a retrieval mode came from finding slower RT task performance on control trials when participants had already been instructed about the prospective memory task than when they had not yet been so instructed. Evidence for target checking came from finding slower RT task performance on experimental trials when a target could appear in any one of five locations than in just one location.

Keywords: prospective memory, task interference, retrieval mode, target checking

Prospective and Retrospective Verbal Time Estimation in Children with ADHD

pp. 212-220
First published on 23 August 2021 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0330-y
Marco Walg, Helmut Prior
Corresponding author:
Marco Walg, Zentrum für seelische Gesundheit des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Sana-Klinikum Remscheid, Weststraße 103, 42119, Wuppertal, Germany
Walg, M., & Prior, H. (2021). Prospective and retrospective verbal time estimation in children with ADHD. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 17(3), 212-220.

There is increasing evidence that timing deficits represent a primary cause of key symptoms in ADHD. However, results in experiments on timing may vary with different methods of assessing timing competencies. The present study directly compared two central paradigms, namely, prospective and retrospective time estimation in children with (n = 30) and without (n = 29) ADHD. In both conditions, durations were estimated considerably longer by children with ADHD. Children with ADHD significantly overestimated the real duration of the task compared to children without ADHD in the retrospective but not in the prospective condition. In general, prospective estimates were more accurate than retrospective ones. The findings corroborate the essential role that timing deficits and a faster internal clock play in ADHD. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the importance of careful differentiation between prospective and retrospective time estimation.

Keywords: ADHD, time processing, verbal time estimation

Is Exposure to the Memories of Others a Necessary Precondition for Collaborative Inhibition?

pp. 221-229
First published on 23 August 2021 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0331-z
Justina Ohaeri Ekeocha
Corresponding author:

Justina O. Ekeocha, Department of Psychology, William Paterson University, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470

Ekeocha, J. O. (2021). Is exposure to the memories of others a necessary precondition for collaborative inhibition? Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 17(3), 221-229.

In recall tasks, pooled individual productivity is generally greater than collaborative productivity, an effect called collaborative inhibition. This effect is believed to be caused by disruption of individual organizational strategies in the collaborative context due to exposure to the memories of others. The present study directly tested the exposure explanation. Three-person groups viewed a slide presentation and later recalled the content first as individuals, and subsequently as groups that were either exposed or not exposed to the memories of others. Results show that shielding participants from the contributions of others did not eliminate collaborative inhibition. The need to give more research attention to social factors is discussed.

Keywords: collaborative recall, collaborative inhibition, group recall, group memory, collaborative remembering

Psychological Evaluation of Attention Indices and Directed Visual Perception Using Neurofeedback Training

pp. 230-238
First published on 23 August 2021 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0332-9
Mirosław Mikicin
Corresponding author:
Mirosław Mikicin, Interfaculty Laboratory of Neuropsychophysiology, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland
Mikicin, M. (2021). Psychological evaluation of attention indices and directed visual perception using neurofeedback training. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 17(3), 230-238.

The goal of the study was to psychologically assess the overall ability to be attentive during the prolonged focus of oriented visual perception during task performance. Attention and oriented visual perception significantly enhance task performance. Forty students in the early stages of military university studies participated in the study. The Vienna Test System examining general attention, continuity of attention, and directed visual tracking was used. The study involved two measurements (before and after 20 attention training sessions using the neurofeedback method). The psychological ability to select stimuli and maintain continuous attention was assessed to determine cognitive readiness for the task and the focus and accuracy of visual recognition. A psychological evaluation of the attention and oriented visual perception showed that the neurofeedback contributed to reducing the task completion time (p < .050), the time of correctly accepted stimuli, the time of incorrect responses, increasing the sum of correct responses, and the median of correct answers determined compared to time limit. An improvement was found in maintaining attention when performing a repetitive task over a long period of time and matching task completion time with maintaining attentiveness.

Keywords: enhancing beta1 band bioelectrical activity, selective attention, focus and continuity of attention, oriented visual tracking, maintaining attentiveness

Ego Depletion and Time Pressure Promote Spontaneous Deception: An Event-Related Potential Study

pp. 239-249
First published on 11 September 2021 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0333-8
Wei Fan, Ying Yang, Wenjie Zhang, Yiping Zhong
Corresponding author:
Yiping Zhong, Cognition and Human Behavior Key Laboratory of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China.
Fan, W., Yang, Y., Zhang, W., & Zhong, Y. (2021). Ego depletion and time pressure promote spontaneous deception: An event-related potential study. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 17(3), 239-249.

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to explore the influence of ego depletion on spontaneous deception under time pressure. The Stroop Color–Word test was used to manipulate the participants’ ego depletion in the experiment. A visual perception task was employed to assess the participants’ deceptive tendency. The results indicated that the ego-depleted group was more prone to engaging deception and induced a larger P3 amplitude than did the nondepleted group. The no-time pressure group was more likely to deceive and induced a larger P3 amplitude than did the high-time pressure group. These results suggest that individuals with sufficient resources for self-control are more likely to resist temptation and less likely to engage in self-serving deception. Higher time pressure made subjects more likely to cheat. Deception is automatic and spontaneous under certain conditions. Ego depletion and high time pressure promote the occurrence of deception.

Keywords: ego depletion, time pressure, deception, P3 amplitude

Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019).

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów.