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Volume 19 Issue 3 (2023)

Semantic Clustering in Verbal Fluency and Learning Tasks in Normal and Pathological Ageing

pp. 211-223
First published on 17 July 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0393-0
Ewa Zawadzka, Łucja Domańska
Corresponding author:

Ewa Zawadzka, Department of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Głęboka 45, 20-612 Lublin, Poland.


Zawadzka, E., & Domańska, Ł. (2023). Semantic clustering in verbal fluency and learning tasks in normal and pathological ageing. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 211-223.

Many studies suggest that semantic clustering facilitates searching for and retrieving information encoded in long-term memory. Clinical findings show a decrease in some indices of semantic clustering, however, only few of them have undertaken a detailed analysis of the semantic clustering phenomenon in stroke patients. It is not entirely clear to what extent semantic clustering determines the performance of various verbal tasks in older adults with vascular brain damage. The current study aimed to examine: (a) the differences in word list retrieval and semantic fluency between healthy controls and older post-stroke adults, (b) the effects of clinical condition (healthy vs. older post-stroke adults) and the type of task (word list retrieval vs. verbal fluency) on the usage of semantic clustering while controlling for the number of produced or retrieved words, and (c) the mediating effect of semantic clustering on the relationships between clinical condition and verbal fluency performance or between clinical condition and performance in retrieval of the word list. We tested 46 healthy older adults and 38 stroke patients. Statistically significant effects of the clinical condition and the type of task on the semantic clustering were found even under the condition of controlling for the number of produced or retrieved words. We also found a significant mediating role of semantic clustering for the relationships between clinical condition and performance of both fluency and free recall tasks.

Keywords: clustering semantic fluency free recall stroke ageing

No SNARC Effect Among Left-to-Right Readers: Evidence From a Turkish Sample

pp. 224-236
First published on 25 July 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0394-x
Merve Bulut, Ilgım Hepdarcan, Ezgi Palaz, Hakan Çetinkaya, Seda Dural
Corresponding author:

Hakan Çetinkaya, Department of Psychology, Yaşar University, 35100 Bornova, İzmir.


Bulut, M., Hepdarcan, I., Palaz, E., Çetinkaya, H., & Dural, S. (2023). No SNARC effect among left-to-right readers: Evidence from a Turkish sample. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 224-236.

The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) refers to the faster left-hand responses to smaller numbers and faster right-hand responses to larger numbers. Although easily replicable in Western cultures, the prevalence of the SNARC effect in other cultures has long been an issue. In the current study, we aimed to replicate the SNARC effect in a parity judgement task with Turkish participants (N = 66) whose reading habits are entirely left-to-right. The results revealed no SNARC effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first finding indicating the absence of regular SNARC effect among left-to-right readers in a classical parity judgement task. Based on these findings, we suggest that investigations of cultural influences on spatial-numerical associations should take a broader perspective rather than only focusing on reading habits.

Keywords: SNARC reading habits mental number line parity judgement SNA

How Affect and Repetition Influence Judgments of Truth

pp. 237-248
First published on 25 July 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0395-y
Patricia Garrido-Vásquez, Tanja Rock
Corresponding author:

Patricia Garrido-Vásquez Schmidt, Department of Psychology, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile.


Garrido-Vásquez, P., & Rock, T. (2023). How affect and repetition influence judgments of truth. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 237-248.

People believe repeated statements more than new ones, a phenomenon called the repetitioninduced truth effect. It is chiefly explained with the subjective processing ease (i.e., fluency) for repeated as compared to new information. To date, the role of affective processes for the repetition- induced truth effect is rather unclear. Different mechanisms may play a role: Affect influences processing styles, it may directly inform judgments, and positive affect may be misattributed to fluency/familiarity. In the current study, we compared mechanisms and tested whether a positive, neutral, or negative picture presented before a statement would influence the repetition-induced truth effect. Experiment 1 followed a classical repetition-induced truth effect procedure with two sessions that were a week apart. In the second session, each statement was preceded by an affective picture. We replicated the repetition-induced truth effect, and we observed a statistically significant main effect of affect—statements were rated as truer after a positive rather than a negative or neutral picture, but the interaction between repetition and affect was not statistically significant. In Experiment 2, we aimed to clarify the mechanism behind this finding using only new statements preceded by affective pictures. No statistically significant main effect of affect emerged. We conclude that the results in Experiment 1 were due to the misattribution of positive affect to fluency/ familiarity, enhancing the perceived truth of the statements. In sum, our results suggest two factors that enhance truth judgments: repetition and positive affect, but the effects of affect depend on the exact paradigm used.

Keywords: truth effect repetition affect affective pictures positivity fluency

Openness to Experience, Workplace Bullying, and Employee Mental Health

pp. 249-260
First published on 25 July 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0396-z
Anna Skuzińska, Mieczysław Plopa, Wojciech Plopa
Corresponding author:

Anna Skuzińska, Elblag University of Humanities and Economy - Wydział Administracji i Nauk Społecznych, Lotnicza 2 Elblag 83-200, Poland.


Skuzińska, A., Plopa, M., & Plopa, W. (2023). Openness to experience, workplace bullying, and employee mental health. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 249-260.

The aim of this study was to verify the moderating role of openness to experience in the relationship between negative workplace behaviors and mental health variables. The cross-sectional survey sample was 659. The moderating role of openness to experience was confirmed. Despite the expectations, low rather than openness to experience, played a protective role against intense negative behaviors. Possible explanations for this result are mainly based on the properties of the stressor being tested. Implications for further research on the role of openness to experience are presented in the later sections of the study.

Keywords: personality workplace bullying mental health

The SNARC Effect for Nonsymbolic Numbers is Not Observed When Stimuli Spatially Orient Attention

pp. 261-272
First published on 25 July 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0397-9
Qiangqiang Wang, Yu Chen, Shengmin Liu, Weixia Zhang, Yanchu Ma, Yanwen Wu
Corresponding author:

Yanwen Wu, Department of Psychology, School of Teacher Education, Tianshui Normal University, 105, Jihe South Road, Tianshui, Gansu Province, R.P. China.


Wang, Q., Chen, Y., Liu, S., Zhang, W., Ma, Y., & Wu, Y. (2023). The SNARC effect for nonsymbolic numbers is not observed when stimuli spatially orient attention. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 261-272.

The current study investigated how the spatial position of nonsymbolic numbers on the mental number line influenced responses when stimuli contained spatial (orientation) and magnitude information. Different numbers of rectangles (Experiment 1), leftward and rightward arrows (Experiments 2, 3 and 4), or double-headed arrows (Experiment 5) were centrally presented to participants who were asked to classify these stimuli according to the parity (i.e., evenness) of the number of rectangles (Experiment 1), arrow orientation (Experiment 2), parity of the number of arrows (Experiment 3), numbers of leftward and rightward arrows (Experiment 4), or parity of the number of double-headed arrows (Experiment 5). The results showed that (a) the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect was present in the rectangle parity (Experiment 1) and the double-headed arrow parity (Experiment 5) classification, but that (b) despite the association between arrow orientation and response, no SNARC effect was observed in the arrow orientation (Experiment 2), arrow parity (Experiment 3) or arrow magnitude (Experiment 4) classification tasks. These results indicate that spatial cues and nonsymbolic numbers interact to create systematic spatial-numerical associations.

Keywords: SNARC effect orientation and response association effect orientation magnitude nonsymbolic numbers

Profiles of Relationships With Religious Symbols

pp. 273-282
First published on 25 July 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0398-8
Małgorzata Tatala, Marcin Wojtasiński
Corresponding author:

Małgorzata Tatala, Institute of Psychology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, Lublin 20-950, Poland.


Tatala, M., & Wojtasiński, M. (2023). Profiles of relationships with religious symbols. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 273-282.

In the current study, profiles of relationships with religious symbols were examined. Implications of the concept of religious symbols by Tatala, which analyzes its cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions served as theoretical basis for extracting the profiles. It was proposed that the behavioral component is expressed on an extraverted-introverted continuum, while the emotional and cognitive components can be understood as the predominance of one of the processing mechanisms (cognitive or emotional). A total of 239 participants in four age groups (12-, 15-, 18- and 24-year-olds) were surveyed using the Religious Symbol Importance Scale. As a result of cluster analysis, four characteristic profiles were distinguished and confirmed separately for the symbol of the Cross and the Bible: introverted-cognitive, introverted-emotional, extraverted-cognitive, and extraverted-emotional. Also, multidimensional scaling analysis showed the closeness of the individual parameters of religiosity, which appeared to be independent of the type of the symbol. The results of the study allow the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions to be considered as important factors in studying personal relationships with religious symbols.

Keywords: religiosity religious symbol the Bible the Cross cluster analysis multidimensional scaling

Grounds for Divorce: The Dynamics of Marriage Satisfaction as a Predictor of Divorce

pp. 283-296
First published on 13 October 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0399-7
Mieczysław Plopa, Wojciech Plopa, Anna Skuzińska
Corresponding author:

Mieczysław Plopa, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Poland.


Plopa, M., Plopa, W., & Skuzińska, A. (2023). Grounds for divorce: The dynamics of marriage satisfaction as a predictor of divorce. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 283-296.

Marriage satisfaction was analyzed in to predict pro-divorce tendencies, taking into consideration gender, marriage seniority, and the wives’ and husbands’ similarity of marriage satisfaction evaluations. Marriages engaged in divorce proceedings (800 couples) were matched to a group of stable marriages (800 couples) with respect to marriage seniority, education, and number of children. Cantril’s Ladder was employed to examine marriage satisfaction at different stages of its duration. Partners from stable relationships presented similar satisfaction dynamics whereas for partners during divorce proceedings, satisfaction evaluations decreased with time and diverged (wives tended to be more dissatisfied than husbands). The dynamics of marriage satisfaction for women and men differ depending on their marriage status (stable vs. divorcing).

Keywords: marriage, divorce, stability, satisfaction, Cantril’s Ladder

Microgenetic Analysis of Reading Remediation: A Novel Computational Framework

pp. 297-315
First published on 25 October 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0400-6
Christoforos Christoforou, Christiana Ktisti, Ulla Richardson, Timothy C. Papadopoulos
Corresponding author:

Christoforos Christoforou, Division of Computer Science, Mathematics and Science, St. John’s University, New York.


Christoforou, C., Ktisi, C., Richardson, U., & Papadopoulos, T. C. (2023). Microgenetic analysis of reading remediation: A novel computational framework. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 297-315.

Reading intervention program efficacy is usually determined by comparing participants’ performance to controls on dependent measures at pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments. However, little is known about how learning progresses during different stages of the intervention. This lack of knowledge can be attributed to the absence of appropriate computational frameworks to encode, analyze, and capture such dynamics. We propose a novel computational framework to capture learning process dynamics during the intervention by analyzing microgenetic data. The framework addresses the problem of encoding microgenetic data into a common data representation model, introduces four information-theoretic metrics to capture the instantaneous developmental learning stages of groups and individuals, and provides the mathematical model to analyze those metrics for the study of learning stages during the intervention. We used data from a longitudinal reading remediation study involving 56 Greek-speaking 6-year-old children to demonstrate the framework’s utility. Results showed that the framework functions as a new tool to explore the modulation in learning stages during the intervention, better understand how reading occurs, and how reading disability may be adequately treated.

Keywords: microgenetic analysis, computational models, reading remediation

Coronavirus Anxiety as Mediator in the Relationship of Depression and Fear of Death among Polish Adults in the Second Half of Life

pp. 316-323
First published on 7 November 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0407-x
Paweł Brudek, Dariusz Pysz-Waberski, Stanisława Steuden
Corresponding author:

Paweł Brudek, KUL Jana Pawła II; Instytut Psychologii; Aleje Racławickie 14; 20-950 Lublin.


Brudek, P., Pysz-Waberski, D., & Steuden, S. (2023). Coronavirus anxiety as mediator in the relationship of depression and fear of death among Polish adults in the second half of life. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 316-323.

The current study investigated the relationship between depression, fear of death, and coronavirus anxiety as a potential mediator of this relationship among adults in the second half of life. Longitudinal studies were carried out with three measurements on a sample of 197 people from Poland aged 50 to 80 (M = 65.88; SD = 5.89). The following psychological methods were used: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), and Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R). The mediation analysis with bias-corrected bootstrapping method confirmed that the relation between depression and fear of death is mediated by coronavirus anxiety. These findings suggest that coronavirus anxiety is an important element of depression.

Keywords: adults in the second half of life depression coronavirus anxiety fear of death

Identifier Names in Computer Programs: Literature Review

pp. 324-333
First published on 1 December 2023 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0417-2
Iwo Herka
Corresponding author:

Iwo Herka, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw - Computer Science, Okopowa 59 , Warsaw, 01-043 Poland.


Herka, I. (2023). Identifier names in computer programs: Literature review. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 324-333.

The current study aimed to conduct a literature review on the subject of identifier names in computer programs. Specifically, this review focused on three research topics: identifier structure and their semantics, identifier quality measures, and how developers choose names. This review included 33 papers extending from 1998 to 2021. Key findings suggest that lexicon quality and structure greatly impact developer cognition and performance, which translates to overall quality of software, as well as speed with which it is created. However, tools, methods and naming guidelines that improve the code lexicon are rarely applied commercially. Finally, future research is needed to develop a complete theory of program comprehension to understand the role of identifiers in the process. Contributions of this paper • Summarises international research on identifier names in computer programs. • Identifies methodological issues in the present research and offers recommendations for future studies.

Keywords: programming, software development, psychology of programming, identifiers, naming

Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019). Advances in Cognitive Psychology is co-financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki) under the program "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów. Advances in Cognitive Psychology jest współfinansowane przez Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki w ramach programu "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.