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Volume 20 Issue 2 (2024)

Learning and Communication Strategies in Verbal Perlocutionary Aptitude

pp. 80-91
First published on 29 April 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0418-1
Adam Świątek, Giuseppe Leonardi
Corresponding author:

Adam Świątek, University of Economics and Human, Sciences in Warsaw, Okopowa 59, 01-130, Warsaw, Poland.


Świątek, A., & Leonardi, G. (2024). Learning and communication strategies in verbal perlocutionary aptitude. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 80-91.

Perlocutionary acts and effects have long been treated as marginal (Searle, 1969) or too wide and unclear (Leech, 1983) aspects of language competence and performance. However, Post (2013) maintained that perlocution ought to be widely investigated, regarded as being among the vital aspects of communication, and even treated as complementary to the speech act theory (SAT) and linguistic pragmatics. In 2016, Świątek introduced the concept of verbal perlocutionary giftedness, presenting an extended framework for the study of perlocutionary acts from the pragmatic and glottodidactic perspectives on a concomitant basis. Recent research has revealed that perlocution may even have deeper, genetic roots which, supposedly, may have a serious impact on one’s increased verbal perlocutionary efficiency. However, there is yet another phenomenon, that is, learning and communication strategies which might affect the target phenomenon Therefore, the aim of the study, based on both qualitative and quantitative research, was to determine the principal types of learning and communication strategies implemented by perlocutionarily gifted language users, that is, whether they prefer any particular types of strategies when learning and communicating verbally or simply apply a mixture of all strategies, thus possessing a certain kind of global awareness. In other words, this study allowed us to determine whether the above-mentioned learners apply a plethora of strategies when interacting with other language users or simply adopt a finite set of strategies in order to be only understood and thus ensure communicative effectiveness. Therefore, the individual case analysis method together with the contrastive approach allowed to establish the dominant types of strategies in the phenomenon discussed.

Keywords: perlocution, aptitude, strategies, communication, learning

Playing the Victim? Facets of Narcissism, Self-Perceived Victimhood, and the Mediating Role of Negative Affect

pp. 92-97
First published on 23 May 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0419-0
Ramzi Fatfouta, Radosław Rogoza
Corresponding author:

Ramzi Fatfouta, Independent Researcher.


Fatfouta, R., & Rogoza, R. (2024). Playing the victim? Facets of narcissism, self-perceived victimhood, and the mediating role of negative affect. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 92-97.

Prior research has shown that narcissistic individuals see themselves as victims of interpersonal transgressions more often than their less narcissistic counterparts. Yet, grandiose narcissism is a multidimensional construct and not all dimensions may necessarily demonstrate this positive relationship. Therefore, the purpose of the current study (N = 344) was to examine the narcissismvictimhood relationship while paying particular attention to agentic and antagonistic facets of narcissism and examining negative affect as a potential mediator. Results revealed that the two narcissism facets have divergent indirect effects on perceptions of victimhood (i.e., negative for agentic narcissism and positive for antagonistic narcissism). These findings provide further evidence of the narcissistic duality and extend our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the role of narcissism facets in the perception of victimhood.

Keywords: narcissism, grandiosity, personality, negative affect, transgressions, the self

Rumination, Attention and Negative Affect: An Experimental Study

pp. 98-104
First published on 23 May 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0420-x
Tatiana Fernández-Marcos, Cristina Casadevante, José Santacreu
Corresponding author:

Tatiana Fernández-Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas y de la Salud, Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.


Fernández-Marcos, T., Casadevante, C., & Santacreu, J. (2024). Rumination, attention and negative affect: An experimental study. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 98-104.

Objective: To compare an induced rumination group and a control group, in selective attention, attentional control, and negative and positive affect. Method: 40 university students were randomly assigned to the induced rumination group or the control group and performed a selective attention task (DiViSA), an attentional control task (Shapes) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: The induced rumination group showed lower selective attention and greater negative affect than the control group. No statistically significant differences were found in attentional control. Conclusion: The current study suggests that rumination in normal population interfere in selective attention but not in attentional control. We discuss that different networks of Posner´s attention system are involved. We highlight the importance of inducing rumination appropriately and considering the related negative affect.

Keywords: rumination, attention, PANAS, negative affect, selective attention, attentional control, mood

Psychometric Assessment and Gender/Age Invariance of the Polish Adaptation of the Risky Loot Box Index

pp. 105-120
First published on 23 May 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0421-y
Andrzej Cudo, Bernadeta Lelonek-Kuleta, Rafał P. Bartczuk
Corresponding author:

Andrzej Cudo, The Institute of Psychology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.


Cudo, A., Lelonek-Kuleta, B., & Bartczuk, R. P. (2024). Psychometric assessment and gender/age invariance of the Polish adaptation of the Risky Loot Box Index. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 105-120.

Loot boxes are random virtual items in video games that gamers can purchase using real or virtual in-game money. Brooks and Clark (2019) developed a five-item measure of risky behaviors surrounding the use of loot boxes called the Risky Loot Box Index (RLI). So far, it is one of the few validated instruments to evaluate difficulties in controlling the use of these specific microtransactions in video games. The current study aimed to provide data on the Polish version of the RLI. A sample of 1358 gamers (59.1% females) who opened loot boxes in the past 12 months completed an online survey conducted via an internet panel containing the RLI along with the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short-Form, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and questions about loot box use and sociodemographics. As a result, the original RLI’s one-factor structure was successfully confirmed in the Polish version. The scale also displayed satisfactory internal consistency. Furthermore, convergent validity indices were similar to those reported for the original version, and scale scores reached full invariance across gender and age. Finally, the study examined the item functioning of RLI according to item response theory. The Polish version of the RLI is well aligned with the original English version. Therefore, it offers a valuable measure to Polish researchers and clinicians interested in measuring the problematic aspects of loot box use.

Keywords: loot boxes, gaming, Risky Loot Box Index (RLI), gender invariance

Does Time Pressure Promote Lies in Betting on Coin Tosses?

pp. 121-129
First published on 23 May 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0422-z
Huanxu Liu, Yuki Yamada
Corresponding author:

Huanxu Liu, Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.


Liu, H. & Yamada, Y. (2024). Does time pressure promote lies in betting on coin tosses? Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 121-129.

Previous research suggests that individuals automatically lie rather than be honest and that lies increase under time pressure. However, subsequent studies have failed to replicate the original findings. Moreover, because participants could decide their responses before the onset of time pressure, it was difficult to conclude that the difference between the conditions observed in the original study was due to time pressure. Therefore, we improved the methodology in the current study by applying time pressure throughout the task to ensure that the participants were consistently influenced by it regardless of when they made their decisions to lie. The results (N = 428) revealed a statistically significant increase in lies under time pressure. A connection between the frequency of lies and participants’ perceived time pressure was also shown. These findings support the original study which indicated that cognitive control is needed to resist the temptation to lie and suggested that the frequency of lies increases, especially when the perceived time pressure is stronger, because it exhausts the resources available to suppress lies.

Keywords: lies, cheating, time pressure, perceived time pressure

Perceived Structure and Search Efficiency: Investigating the Role of Plaid Composition and Grating Characteristics

pp. 130-139
First published on 30 May 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0423-9
Pi-Chun Huang
Corresponding author:

Pi-Chun Huang, Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan.


Huang, P.-C. (2024). Perceived structure and search efficiency: Investigating the role of plaid composition and grating characteristics. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 130-139.

Plaids consist of two orthogonally oriented gratings. However, their structure may be perceived as a checkerboard with an oblique orientation or as two overlaid gratings. We used a visual search paradigm to investigate how plaids with different perceived structures influence search efficiency for determining whether a preattentive plaid-specific or grating-specific mechanism is involved in representing the plaid. Participants searched for a grating among plaids (Experiment 1) or a plaid among gratings (Experiment 2). Contrast (low vs. high), composed spatial frequency (SF) of the plaid (coherent vs. mixed), and target–distractor orientation relationship (component orientation– aligned vs. structure orientation–aligned) were manipulated to vary the perceived structure of the plaid. Parallel search was observed when the target was a coherent checkerboard plaid, and orientation manipulation did not influence search efficiency. However, search performance was less efficient when the target plaid was perceived as overlaid gratings. When searching for a grating among plaids, low-SF gratings were located more quickly than high-SF gratings, regardless of the plaid distractor type. The results provide evidence for the existence of a preattentive plaid-specific mechanism that is distinct from the grating-sensitive mechanism.

Keywords: visual search, plaid, feature integration, grating

Frontal Application of 7 and 40 Hz tACS Enhances Working Memory Function

pp. 140-148
First published on 30 May 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0425-7
Eugen Kvašňák, Tomer Wright, Max Vykoukal, Jaroslava Kymplová, Petr Ježdík
Corresponding author:

Max Vykoukal, Department of Medical Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, U Kříže 328/3, 77900, Olomouc, Czech Republic.


Kvašňák, E., Wright, T., Vykoukal, M., Kymplová, J., & Ježdík, P. (2024). Frontal application of 7 and 40 Hz tACS enhances working memory function. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 140-148.

Effectively applied transcranial electrical stimulation yields potential for enhancing the function of various cognitive domains, making it a promising point of investigation in the field of neuroscience. The current study explored the comparative effectiveness of theta (7 Hz) and gamma (40 Hz) transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in enhancing the features of working memory (WM), specifically the central executive and visuospatial components, as assessed by a 2-back task. Frontofrontal tACS was employed to investigate the impact of these two frequency bands on a sample of 112 healthy participants in the age range of 18-20 years. Our findings provide support for WM improvement as both frontal theta-tACS and gamma-tACS exhibited superior outcomes when compared to sham stimulation. Furthermore, stronger improvements in WM were observed in the context of 40 Hz stimulation as contrasted with 7 Hz stimulation during both online and post-stimulation assessments. Overall, we observed that the initial online enhancements in cognitive performance are associated with entrainment, whereas long-term offline effects are attributed to plasticity. This study contributes to the evolving landscape of tACS research and emphasizes the need for further investigations into the intricate interactions between tACS parameters, task load, and individual characteristics to enhance the therapeutic potential of neuromodulation techniques for WM enhancement.

Keywords: working memory, transcranial electrical stimulation, alternating current stimulation, gamma frequency, theta frequency

Cognitive Functions in Pre-Adolescent Children Involved in Gymnastic and Soccer

pp. 149-157
First published on 24 June 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0424-8
Ilona Bidzan-Bluma, Paweł Jurek, Małgorzata Lipowska
Corresponding author:

Ilona Bidzan-Bluma, Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk, ul. Bażyńskiego 4, Gdańsk, Poland, Institute of Pedagogy and Languages; University of Applied Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 1, Elbląg, Poland.


Bidzan-Bluma, I., Jurek, P., & Lipowska, M. (2024). Cognitive functions in pre-adolescent children involved in gymnastic and soccer. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 149-157.

Background: Some findings underscore the cognitive benefits associated with sports. However, the differences in cognitive functions of soccer and gymnasts have not been evaluated so far. There is still a scarcity of scientific research concerning children in late childhood. This research aimed to test the cognition of those groups including memory, attention and attentional control, executive functions in the preadolescence phase. Methods: We enrolled 176 participants (88 boys and 88 girls aged 10-12 years). Participants were selected based on age and engagement in specific types of exercises: Group 1, gymnasts (n = 59) involved in closed-skill exercises, Group 2, soccer players (n = 59) engaged in open-skill exercises, and a comparison group (n = 58) comprising children not regularly participating in such sports. Results: Children practicing soccer demonstrated better cognitive functions, particularly in areas related to attention and cognitive flexibility. In contrast gymnasts displayed lower selective attention and had better verbal working memory. Both athlete groups demonstrated higher performance in the phonological loop and immediate free recall of visual material compared to the control group. No changes in cognitive inhibition, reasoning, verbal fluency, planning, Theta/ Beta Ratio, or Theta/SMR ratio were observed in either group. Conclusions: The study provides valuable insights into the particular cognitive domains impacted by various types of physical activities among children, highlighting the potential implications for educational and sports interventions and emphasizing the cognitive advantages linked with participation in sports during childhood.

Keywords: cognition, sport, gymnastics, soccer, children

Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019). Advances in Cognitive Psychology is co-financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki) under the program "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów. Advances in Cognitive Psychology jest współfinansowane przez Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki w ramach programu "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.