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Volume 16 Issue 4 (2020)

Predicting Individuals’ Experienced Fear From Multimodal Physiological Responses to a Fear-Inducing Stimulus

pp. 291-301
First published on 24 November 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0303-x
Eun-Hye Jang, Sangwon Byun, Mi-Sook Park, Jin-Hun Sohn
Corresponding author:
Jin-Hun Sohn, Department of Psychology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, South Korea.

Sangwon Byun, Department of Electronics Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Jang, E. H., Byun, S., Park, M. S., & Sohn, J. H. (2020). Predicting Individuals' Experienced Fear From Multimodal Physiological Responses to a Fear-Inducing Stimulus. Advances in cognitive psychology, 16(4), 291-301.

Emotions are experienced differently by individuals, and thus, it is important to account for individuals’ experienced emotions to understand their physiological responses to emotional stimuli. The present study investigated the physiological responses to a fear-inducing stimulus and examined whether these responses can predict experienced fear. A total of 230 participants were presented with neutral and fear-inducing film clips, after which they self-rated their experienced emotions. Physiological measures (skin conductance level and response: SCL, SCR, heart rate: HR, pulse transit time: PTT, fingertip temperature: FT, and respiratory rate: RR) were recorded during the stimuli presentation. We examined the correlations between the physiological measures and the participants’ experienced emotional intensity, and performed a multiple linear regression to predict fear intensity based on the physiological responses. Of the participants, 92.5% experienced the fear emotion, and the average intensity was 5.95 on a 7-point Likert scale. Compared to the neutral condition, the SCL, SCR, HR, and RR increased significantly during the fear-inducing stimulus presentation whereas FT and PTT decreased significantly. Fear intensity correlated positively with SCR and HR and negatively with SCL, FT, PTT, and RR. The multiple linear regression demonstrated that fear intensity was predicted by a combination of SCL, SCR, HR, FT, and RR. Our findings indicate that the physiological responses to experiencing fear are associated with cholinergic, sympathetic, and α-adrenergic vascular activation as well as myocardial β-sympathetic excitation, and support the use of multimodal physiological signals for quantifying emotions.

Keywords: fear intensity, experienced emotion, physiological signals, autonomic responses

The TeensyTap Framework for Sensorimotor Synchronization Experiments

pp. 302-308
First published on 24 November 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0304-y
Floris Tijmen van Vugt
Corresponding author:
Floris van Vugt, McGill Psychology Department, Ostry Lab, room 718, 2001 McGill College Avenue, Montreal, QC H3A 1G1, Canada.
van Vugt F. T. (2020). The TeensyTap Framework for Sensorimotor Synchronization Experiments. Advances in cognitive psychology, 16(4), 302-308.

Synchronizing movements with an external periodic stimulus, such as tapping your foot along with a metronome, is a remarkable human skill called sensorimotor synchronization. A growing body of literature investigates this process, but experiments require collecting responses with high temporal reliability, which often requires specialized hardware. The current article presents and validates TeensyTap, an inexpensive, highly functional framework with excellent timing performance. The framework uses widely available, low-cost hardware and consists of custom-written open-source software and communication protocols. TeensyTap allows running complete experiments through a graphical user interface and can simultaneously present a pacing signal (metronome), measure movements using a force-sensitive resistor, and deliver auditory feedback, with optional experimenter specified artificial feedback delays. Movement data is communicated to a computer and saved for offline analysis in a format that allows it to be easily imported into spreadsheet programs. The present work also reports a validation experiment showing that timing performance of TeensyTap is highly accurate, ranking it among the gold standard tools available in the field. Metronome pacing signals are presented with millisecond accuracy, feedback sounds are delivered on average 2 ms following the subjects’ taps, and the timing log files produced by the device are unbiased and accurate to within a few milliseconds. The framework allows for a range of experimental questions to be addressed and, since it is open source and transparent, researchers with some technical expertise can easily adapt and extend it to accommodate a host of possible future experiments that have yet to be imagined.

Keywords: sensorimotor synchronization, microcontroller, auditory feedback, metronome, music

Determinants of Perceived Stress in Adolescence: The Role of Personality Traits, Emotional Abilities, Trait Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem

pp. 309-320
First published on 10 December 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0305-z
Joanna Piekarska
Corresponding author:
Joanna Piekarska, Institute of Psychology, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Okopowa 59, 01-043 Warsaw, Poland.
Piekarska J. (2020). Determinants of Perceived Stress in Adolescence: The Role of Personality Traits, Emotional Abilities, Trait Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem. Advances in cognitive psychology, 16(4), 309-320.

The aim of the current study was to examine the explanatory power of personality traits, emotional abilities, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and self-esteem in predicting perceived stress in adolescents. The data were collected from 406 high school students, aged 18-22 years (Mage = 18.47, SD = 0.64). Perceived stress was assessed with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Personality traits were measured with the Eysenck Personality Short Scale (EPQ-R-S), emotional abilities were assessed with two performance tests, the Emotional Intelligence Scale – Faces (SIE-T), and the Emotion Understanding Test (TRE), and trait emotional intelligence was measured with a self-report questionnaire (the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, SEIS). The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were also used. Results indicate that the strongest determinant of perceived stress in adolescents was high neuroticism. Perceived stress was also determined by low self-efficacy and self-esteem, as well as high extraversion and psychoticism. Women reported higher perceived stress than men. There also were differences in the determinants of perceived stress between graduate and nongraduate students. The obtained results suggest that the development of high self-esteem and high self-efficacy may contribute to perceptions of lower stress in adolescents and may be especially valuable for neurotic individuals and for women, who are more exposed to stress.

Keywords: perceived stress, self-efficacy, self-esteem, personality traits, emotional intelligence

Counterproductive Work Behavior and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

pp. 321-328
First published on 10 December 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0306-9
Barbara Sypniewska
Corresponding author:
Barbara Sypniewska, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Okopowa 59, 01-043 Warsaw, Poland.
Sypniewska B. (2020). Counterproductive Work Behavior and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Advances in cognitive psychology, 16(4), 321-328.

Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) are two seemingly opposite types of active and volitional behaviors. However, previous research on the mutual relationships between these two types of behavior has yielded inconclusive results. Such relationships are of particular interest in countries such as Poland, which is still in the process of economic and social transformation from a communist to a capitalist system. Therefore, the current study sought to re-examine the relationships between OCB and CWB in a large sample of Polish employees. One thousand and fifty-one employees were recruited from small, medium, and large Polish enterprises to take part in the study, and they completed questionnaire measures of CWB and OCB. The results showed that the overall frequencies of CWB and OCB were statistically significantly correlated. However, while some dimensions of OCB were found to be significantly negatively correlated with certain categories of CWB, one dimension of OCB was significantly positively correlated with CWB. Cluster analysis allowed for distinguishing of four subgroups of participants with different profiles of CWB and OCB, including a subgroup that exhibited equal levels of OCB and CWB and a subgroup that exhibited high levels of CWB cooccurring with increased frequencies of some dimensions of OCB. These results demonstrate that, overall, CWB and OCB are relatively independent and unrelated constructs; however, their particular dimensions may show a more complex pattern of relationships.

Keywords: counterproductive work behavior, organizational citizenship behavior

Spatial Attention and Saccade Preparation Both Independently Contribute to the Discrimination of Oblique Orientations

pp. 329-343
First published on 14 December 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0307-8
Samantha Parker, Andrew Heathcote, Matthew Finkbeiner
Corresponding author:
Samantha Parker, Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 16 University Avenue, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia.
Parker, S., Heathcote, A., & Finkbeiner, M. (2020). Spatial Attention and Saccade Preparation Both Independently Contribute to the Discrimination of Oblique Orientations. Advances in cognitive psychology, 16(4), 329-343.

The extent to which the preparation of an eye movement and spatial attention both independently influence performance within the same task has long been debated. In a recent study that combined computational modelling with a dual-task, both saccade preparation and spatial cueing were revealed to separately contribute to the discrimination of targets oriented along the cardinal axis (horizontal and vertical). However, it remains to be seen whether and to what degree the same holds true when different perceptual stimuli are used. In the present study, we combined evidence accumulation modelling with a dual-task paradigm to assess the extent to which both saccade preparation and spatial attention contribute to the discrimination of full contrast targets oriented along the oblique axis (diagonal). The results revealed a separate and quantifiable contribution of both types of orienting to discrimination performance. Comparison of the magnitude of these effects to those obtained for cardinal orientation discrimination revealed the influence of saccade preparation and spatial attention to be six times smaller for oblique orientations. Importantly, the results revealed a separate and quantifiable contribution of both saccade preparation and spatial attention regardless of perceptual stimuli or stimulus contrast.

Keywords: spatial attention, saccade, cueing, oblique orientation, evidence accumulation modelling, eye movements

Information Processing and Decision-Making in Pathological Worriers and their Potential Role in Mechanisms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

pp. 344-352
First published on 14 December 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0308-7
Jacek Gierus

Systematic information processing and decision-making under uncertainty are key constructs of new conceptions explaining the severity of pathological worry. The current study attempted to analyze their usefulness in subclinical and clinical groups. In the first phase of the study (N = 251) participants were examined with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), a GP consultation-related survey, and a screening survey for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In the second phase (N = 220), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the PSWQ, and tasks measuring systematic information processing (SIP) versus heuristic reasoning (HR) were applied. In the third phase (N = 60), GAD (n = 30) and healthy control (n = 30) groups were examined with the above methods and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In the low risk group, a relationship between mood and the representativeness heuristic (ρ = 0.50), as well as anchoring and adjustment heuristic (anxiety-related stimuli) was found (ρ = −0.53). In the GAD group, significant correlations between the PSWQ score, the IGT loss avoidance score (ρ = 0.40), and total IGT score (ρ = 0.48) were found. The results did not confirm a particular usefulness of the systematic/heuristic information processing construct in subclinical and clinical groups. Theory-consistent results were rather found in the nonclinical groups. Nevertheless, the data revealed some interesting findings supporting potential explanatory power of some theoretical models.

Effect of Acute Psychological Stress on Motion-in-Depth Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study

pp. 353-362
First published on 16 December 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0309-6
Jifu Wang, Lin Yu, Mengyang He, Changzhu Qi

The present study explored the intrinsic event-related potential (ERP) features of the effects of acute psychological stress on the processing of motion-in-depth perception using a dual-task paradigm. After a mental arithmetic task was used to induce acute psychological stress, a collision task was used to evaluate motion-in-depth perception. The error value and average amplitude of late slow waves (SW) were significantly larger for the earlier colliding spheres’ than for the later colliding spheres. The P1 peak latency in the left occipital region was significantly shorter than that of the right occipital region in the motion-in-depth perception task. Compared to the control condition, the estimated value of residual time-to-collision and error value were significantly reduced, and the N1 peak amplitude and the SW averaged amplitude were significantly increased in the stress condition. Longer motion-in-depth time improved discrimination accuracy and decreased the investment of cognitive resources. Acute psychological stress increased behavioral performance and enhanced attention resources on the motion-in-depth perception task together with greater investment of cognitive resources.

Keywords: event-related potential, acute psychological stress, motion-in-depth perception, time-to-collision

The Human Factor in Maritime Transport: Personality and Aggression Levels of Master Mariners and Navigation Students

pp. 363-369
First published on 16 December 2020 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0310-5
Ryszard Makarowski, Mieczysław Plopa, Andrzej Piotrowski, Wojciech Plopa

The current study sought to identify groups of navigation students and master mariners (captains) characterized by different constellations of the Big Five personality traits and aggression levels. We hypothesized that master mariners would exhibit the resilient personality type and that navigation students would additionally exhibit personality types other than the resilient (e.g., over- or undercontrolled). A sample of 108 navigation students (men, in their second or third year of naval school, all active athletes) and 76 master mariners took part in the study and completed the Polish version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Zawadzki et al., 1998) and the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992; Tucholska, 1998). The hypothesis about the resilient personality type among master mariners was confirmed. The second hypothesis about personality types other than the resilient among navigation students was also confirmed: 33% of the students exhibited the overcontrolling personality type. The article also highlights the need to include psychological assessment in naval school enrolment procedures.

Keywords: maritime personnel, personality, aggression, students of navigation, master mariners. training

Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019). Advances in Cognitive Psychology is co-financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki) under the program "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów. Advances in Cognitive Psychology jest współfinansowane przez Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki w ramach programu "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.