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Volume 20 Issue 1 (2024)

An ERP Study on Affective Priming of Second Language: The Emotion Word Type Effect in Unmasked and Masked Priming Paradigms

pp. 1-11
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0408-y
Juan Zhang, Chenggang Wu, Yaxuan Meng, Zhen Yuan
Corresponding author:

Chenggang Wu, Room 332, School of Education, Shanghai International Studies University, Wenxiang Road 1550, Songjiang, Shanghai.


Zhang, J., Wu, C., Meng, Y., & Yuan, Z. (2024). An ERP study on affective priming of second language: The emotion word type effect in unmasked and masked priming paradigms. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 1-11.

Emotion word type effect refers to a distinction between emotion-laden words (e.g., injury, gift) and emotion-label words (e.g., fear, joy). The present study examined the second language (L2) emotion word type effect using affective priming paradigms in two experiments (Experiment 1: unmasked affective priming; Experiment 2: masked affective priming). Two groups of Chinese- English bilinguals completed a word valence decision task in which they had to decide whether the emotion-laden target words were negative or positive, and their electrophysiological responses (event-related potentials) were recorded. Experiment 1 revealed that the recognition of emotion target words preceded by emotion-label words was facilitated more by emotion-laden words, with enhanced processing speed and electrophysiological activation. In Experiment 2, when participants were unaware of the primes, facilitation of target word processing was also found for emotion-label words. The results confirmed that the emotion word type effect in the L2 could be found in both explicit (unmasked) and implicit (masked) conditions.

Keywords: emotion-label words, emotion-laden words, masked affective priming, second language, event-related potentials

Ignoring Stimuli Related to Self Involves not Only Attention Inhibition but Also Self-Control

pp. 12-20
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0411-8
Jarosław Orzechowski, Aleksandra Gruszka, Michał Nowak, Natalia Wójcik, Radosław Wujcik, Edward Nęcka
Corresponding author:

Jarosław Orzechowski, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland.


Orzechowski, J., Gruszka, A., Nowak, M., Wójcik, N., Wujcik, R., & Nęcka, E. (2024). Ignoring stimuli related to self involves not only attention inhibition but also self-control. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 12-20.

Previous studies have shown that individuals high in the self-control trait are more skilled at avoiding distraction, including higher resistance to affective stimuli. In the current study, we aimed to examine whether self-control moderates working memory performance under the distraction of self-referential stimuli. We assumed that the level of familiarity of a photo of a person presented peripherally as irrelevant stimuli during a goal-directed task, will translate to the level of distractibility. Eighty-six volunteers (10 men) participated in the study. A spatial working memory span task was used as a goal-directed task, while photos of faces varying in their self-reference and attention-capturing propensity were used as distraction. The participants’ task was to focus on the spatial working memory span task while ignoring the distractors. The obtained results show that individuals who are average and high in proactive control (a component of self-control) exhibited higher resistance to the self-reference stimuli presented during the working memory task, thus they were more adept at avoiding distraction than those with low proactive control. Our findings suggest that only certain components of the self-control trait may be at least partially responsible for resistance to self-related distraction.

Keywords: self-control attention cognitive control goal-directed behaviour

COVID-19 Illness and Cognitive Functioning in a Community- Dwelling Sample of Adults

pp. 21-34
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0412-7
Veronika Kobrinsky, Elissa M. Aminoff, Maggie Boros, Francesca Falzarano, Jillian Minahan Zucchetto, Neshat Yazdani, Jordan Sergio, Rachel F. Bloom, Karen L. Siedlecki
Corresponding author:

Karen L. Siedlecki, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Fordham University, 113 W. 60th St., NY, NY 10023, USA.


Kobrinsky, V., Aminoff, E. M., Boros, M., Falzarano, F., Minahan Zucchetto, J., Yazdani, N., Sergio, J., Bloom, R. F., & Siedlecki, K. L. (2024). COVID-19 illness and cognitive functioning in a community-dwelling sample of adults. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 21-34.

Objective: Recent research illuminates a wide range of outcomes associated with COVID-19 illness, including neurological and cognitive dysfunction. While these associations have most often been examined among hospitalized patients, emerging research suggests that cognitive impairments following COVID-19 illness may not be exclusive to hospitalized or severely ill populations. The current study investigates the impact of COVID-19 infection on objective and subjective cognitive functioning among a sample of community-dwelling adults. Method: Cross-sectional data were collected online from a community sample of adults aged 19–67 years (N = 114; Mage = 41.91 years) to examine the associations between those with and without COVID-19 illness history on objective and subjective measures of cognitive functioning. Results: There were no significant differences between those with a history of COVID-19 infection (n = 57) and those without a history of COVID- 19 infection (n = 57) in performance on digit span, digit symbol, choice reaction time, Stroop, and the N-back cognitive tasks. Within the COVID-19 positive group, individuals with long-haul (i.e., persisting four or more weeks) COVID-19 symptoms reported significantly greater impairments in subjective cognition compared to those with short-term COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusions: The current findings provide important insight into the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive outcomes among adults drawn from the community. These results highlight the necessity to continue investigating potential factors that impact the course of COVID-19 illness in diverse populations with varying degrees of viral symptomatology.

Keywords: COVID-19 cognition subjective cognition perceived stress long-haul COVID-19

Cognitive Processes in Rule Violation

pp. 35-43
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0414-5
Fan Wang, Chang-Jiang Liu
Corresponding author:

Chang-Jiang Liu, 122 Ninghai Road, Gulou District, Nanjing, 210097, China.


Wang, F., & Liu, C.-J. (2024). Cognitive processes in rule violation. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 35-43.

Understanding the cognitive processing mechanism of rule violation is required as the basis for preventing rule violation and promoting rule compliance. Here, we review the cognitive processing of rule violations. After reviewing the theories and evidence on the cognitive processes involved in rule violations, a new model is proposed. The model decomposes the cognitive processes of rule violation into three: activation, conflict, and inhibition. Specifically, when individuals encounter a situation in which a rule violation is possible or tasks that require violating the rules, the rule-based and violation responses are successively and simultaneously activated in the mind. The simultaneous activation of the two responses causes individuals to experience a response-selection conflict during the initiation phase and a motor-execution conflict during the execution phase. After the individual decides whether to violate the rules, the activation of the two responses is inhibited to a varying degree. Currently, the understanding of the cognitive processing of rule violation is limited and worth of further investigation. Therefore, future research should improve the existing paradigm of rule violation, enhance the ecological validity of experimental designs, and explore irrational, cognitive, and social factors in the cognitive processing of rule violation.

Keywords: rule violation activation cognitive conflict inhibition conflict adaptation

Stress, Anxiety and Depression: The Role of Mediated and Moderated Mechanisms of Dispositional Mindfulness and Their Effect on Childbirth Outcome

pp. 44-54
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0413-6
Chun-Yi Tai, Li-Li Chen, Wan-Lin Pan, Mu-Jung Chiu, Yeh Hsin, Yi-Chun Lin
Corresponding author:

Wan-Lin Pan, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, No. 365, Ming- Te Road, Peitou, Taipei 11219, Taiwan.


Tai, C.-Y., Chen, L.-L., Pan, W.-L., Chiu, M.-J., Hsin, Y., & Lin, Y.-C. (2024). Stress, anxiety and depression: The role of mediated and moderated mechanisms of dispositional mindfulness and their effect on childbirth outcome. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 44-54.

The risk factors for symptoms of depression in pregnant women are still unclear. The current crosssectional study examined the mindfulness stress-buffering hypothesis as a possible mediating and moderating mechanism of stress and anxiety. Two hundred and thirty-three women who were pregnant at more than 13 gestational weeks completed questionnaires designed to measure stress, anxiety, and depression. SPSS PROCESS macro 3.5 software was used to test the mediation model, in which anxiety was the moderated mediation model variable, and mindfulness was the moderator variable. The current study found that mindfulness directly, and indirectly via anxiety, moderated the effect of stress on depression, with a threshold of 146.95 and 144.60, respectively. Mindfulness levels above these thresholds reduced the use of labor anesthesia and promoted exclusive breastfeeding. This finding suggests that health professionals should pay attention to the mindfulness learning needs of participants when designing mindfulness programs. Achieving high mindfulness scores will help participants fight stress, lower anxiety, and reduce symptoms of depression. In addition, it can also help women adapt to labor pains and promote exclusive breastfeeding behaviors. Corresponding

Keywords: mindfulness stress depression anxiety pregnant women

Sensory Experiences Questionnaire – 3.0 – Polish Version – Factorial Structure and Correlations With Temperamental Traits

pp. 55-63
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0415-4
Karolina Krzysztofik
Corresponding author:

Karolina Krzysztofik, Department of Psychology of Occupation, Organization and Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Social Science, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland


Krzysztofik, K. (2024). Sensory Experiences Questionnaire – 3.0 – Polish version – Factorial structure and correlations with temperamental traits. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 55-63.

The current study was conducted on a group of 208 children with a diagnosis of the autism spectrum aged between 3 years and 6 years 11 months, with a view to validating the four-factorial structure of the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire – 3.0 – Polish Version (SEQ-3.0 – Polish Version). The following questionnaires completed by the children’s parents/caregivers were used: SEQ-3.0 – Polish Version, the Child Behaviour Questionnaire – Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF), and a version of the EAS Temperament Survey for Children (EAS-C). The obtained results confirmed the four-factorial structure of the SEQ-3.0 – Polish Version: hyperresponsiveness (HYPER), hyporesponsiveness (HYPO), sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behavior (SIRS), and enhanced perception (EP). Not all of the items of the EP factor were found to have satisfactory loadings. Therefore, inferences about its presence in the structure of the SEQ-3.0 – Polish Version should be drawn with caution. All factors correlated with the temperamental traits of the children in the analyzed sample. The results suggest that in a group of children on the autism spectrum aged between 3 years and 6 years 11 months, the EP factor might not become manifest. Therefore, it is advisable that future studies be conducted with separate analyses for age subgroups.

Keywords: autism spectrum sensory responsiveness middle childhood temperament

Simulating Nature?! The Impact of Indoor Exercising on Cognitive and Affective Functioning: A Randomized Crossover Trial

pp. 64-79
First published on 1 March 2024 | DOI:10.5709/acp-0416-3
Maria Stefania Ionel, M. Rosario Rueda, Laura Visu-Petra
Corresponding author:
Laura Visu-Petra, Department of Psychology, Republicii Str. No 37, 400015, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Tel/Fax: 0040 264 590967. Email:
Ionel, M. S., Rosario Rueda, M., & Visu-Petra, L. (2024). Simulating nature?! The impact of indoor exercising on cognitive and affective functioning: A randomized crossover trial. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 20(1), 64-79.

The present investigation focused on assessing cognitive and affective effects of indoor exercising while exposing the participants to a video simulation of nature (simulated nature), compared to the typical indoor exercising (control condition). Participants (N = 21, physically active amateur cyclists) completed an incremental effort test to establish their aerobic power. Next, they cycled for 55 minutes under one of two randomized conditions using a within-subjects design: simulated nature, involving the presentation of an outdoor soundscape video, versus the control condition, representing the indoor cycling condition. At the end of each cycling session, conducted 3-7 days apart, participants completed a set of psychological assessments focused on their cognitive functions, including executive attention, vigilance, working memory, as well as and affective functioning, encompassing anxiety, depression, negative and positive affect. The results suggest that exercising in simulated natural environment conditions has little significant cognitive and or affective benefits after controlling for physical effort.

Keywords: executive attention anxiety depression indoor exercising cycling

Tasks financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on the basis of the contract no. 801/P-DUN/2018 out of the funds designed for activities promoting science: Preparation and editing of English versions of articles, Financing foreign Editors-in-Chief, Dissemination of publications and increasing their accessibility to a broad range of readers, Creation of the XML conversion platform to improve the access to the articles (2018-2019). Advances in Cognitive Psychology is co-financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki) under the program "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.

Zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 801/P-DUN/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę: Finansowanie zagranicznych redaktorów naczelnych; Przygotowanie i edycja anglojęzycznych publikacji; Upowszechnianie publikacji i ułatwianie dostępu do nich szerokiemu gronu odbiorców; Utworzenie nowej platformy do udostępniania artykułów. Advances in Cognitive Psychology jest współfinansowane przez Ministerstwo Edukacji i Nauki w ramach programu "Rozwój czasopism naukowych," RCN/SN/0494/2021/1.